Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Best King Tut Identification Given Here

Original Documents

Taken from: http://www.specialtyinterests.net/tutankhamun.html

Pharaoh Tutankhamun

Damien Mackey

November 1, 2011


The Necessary Decisive Revision of the 18th Dynasty Political Scene

How from Amenhotep III the succession of alter-ego kings, plus those of Judah, would influence the political scene we want to describe at this time. We assume the reader has a basic knowledge of Egyptian antique history and the history as presented in the Bible, particularly the books of Kings and Chronicles. We may or may not bring all the scriptures which present the background, for you can follow that in your own Bibles. We expect you to follow each link for the linear chronological sequences of the rulers we discuss and those for additional details.

The Alter-Egos

To start with we present a list of the alter-egos we discuss followed by the reasoning on how it all fits perfectly together.

1.Solomon = Senmut = Hammurabi

2.Hathsepsut = Queen of Sheba

3.Thutmose III = Shishak

4.Amenhotep III/Amenophis III's alter ego, it is not clear if he has one

5.Amenhotep II = Zerah = Nehesi - His reign largely paralleled that of Thutmoses III. at the end

6.Akhnaton = Ahab = Baasha

7.General Merymose = Nehesi = Omri

8.Queen Tiy = Nefertiti = Jezebel

9.Smenkhkare = Elah = Ahaziah

10.Tutankhmaon = Joram = Jehoram of Israel vs Jehoram of Judah [5]

From Rehoboam to Akhnaton

Following the death of Rehoboam (930-913) and his son Abijah (913-911, Asa reigned in Judah/Jerusalem during the approximate time of Amenhotep III reigning in Egypt. It has been suggested that the two were the same person, however, studying the Amarna letters of Amenhotep III, seems to make that quite unlikely and CIAS refrains from identifying him as the alter-ego of Pharaoh Amenhotep III who had his palace at Thebes.[7] In the 5th year (907 BC), Amenhotep III fights his great Libyan war. His general Merymose, may possibly be the later King Omri of Israel. The war took place in his 15th year (896/5), 2.Chr, 15:10,11. This is approximately year 41 of Thutmose III, whose son, Amenhotep II may well be `Zerah the Ethiopian' (Thut III may have had Nubian blood being the Nehesi of the Punt expedition) who led the massive army of a million men against Asa, king in Jerusalem. King Asa's victory was so great, that it brought to an end the long series of Egyptian campaigns into Syro-Palestine under Thutmose III and Amenhotep II. Egypt was now a spent force. The reign of Amenhotep II was largely synchronous with the last 15-17 years of Thutmose III, in particular if Amenhotep II and III were the same king.

Egypt in Decline

With Egypt in decline, the mighty King Asa, now with tens of thousands of captured foreign troops at his disposal, began to spread out from Judah into northern Israel. Ben-hadad/Ashurnasirpal/Yuya may have been pushed out of Israel and stationed himself at Damascus. - Apparently Asa had made an alliance with Jeroboam I; one which he would later renew with Jeroboam's son, Ben-hadad.

Asa's successors

Asa, son of Abijam, after a long and peaceful reign blessed by God, in which he must have ruled a large portion of the world (possibly Babylon also - he is to be considered as one of Hammurabi's strong successors there), went into decline by about his 38th year in 874 BC, physically, with a disease in his feet (1.Kings 15:23), and spiritually, given his consultation now of medicine men and his mistreatment of a prophet. The reason? - It was likely due to knowledge of the evil Queen Tiy, as Nefertiti, at this time.[50] She, being a worshiper of Baal (as Queen Jezebel), would have urged anyone in his situation to consult magicians and to mistreat his prophet.

Baasha/Ahab and successors

It is only now that Baasha/Ahab comes on the scene - with the death of Omri - as ruler of Samaria, after having (as Baasha) reigned two years at Tirzah. He continually fights wars with Asa, whose reign right until then had been peaceful and untroubled 2Chr. 16:1. - Baasha, Elah and Zimri have all been misplaced, and should be recognized as, respectively, Ahab, Ahaziah (as Elah he is the Hiel the Bethelite who rebuilt Jericho), and Jehu (whom Jezebel calls "Zimri"). - As Ahab's political strength increases, Amenhotep III fades away and dies, in 871 BC. Ahab now also married Tiy/Nefertiti and assumes the rulership of Egypt as Akhnaton.[56] Asa's son Jeshoshaphat, who himself will become a real power, seems to be the secondary partner in an alliance (unapproved by the prophets) with Ahab.[58] - Ahab's sons, Ahaziah (Elah) and Joram/Jehoram - not necessarily both by Jezebel - may be, respectively, Akhnaton's sons - not necessarily both by Tiy. Nefertiti - Smenkhare and Tutankhamun (whose mother may have been Kiya).

In the last year of his reign, Jehoram and his nephew of Ahaziah, laid siege to Ramoth-Gilead (which had been the site of an earlier siege that had given rise to Jehu's conspiracy, 2.Ki. 9:23). Jehoram clashed with Syrians, now under the command of King Hazael, and was wounded. He retired to and in fact took up residence on what used to be Naboth's vineyard. Ahaziah stayed with him. ( 2.Ki. 8:28-29)

Soon afterward, a watchman spotted a company of men approaching the residence. Jehoram ordered the watchman to send a messenger on horseback. A messenger went, but did not return. The watchman sent out a second messenger, with the same result—but now the watchman knew, from the way the company was moving, that the leader could only be the noted officer Jehu. Jehoram and Ahaziah prepared their chariots and rode out to meet Jehu. When Jehoram drew to within shouting distance, he asked Jehu, "Is it peace?" Jehu answered that it was definitely not peace, on account of the abominable practices of the dowager queen, . Jehoram turned and fled, and said to Ahaziah that they had been tricked. Almost at once an arrow struck him in the back between the shoulder blades and exited at his heart, so that he died instantly. (2.Ki. 9:17-24 ) [75]

The Story in 2 Kings 9:17-24

New International Version (NIV)

17 When the lookout standing on the tower in Jezreel saw Jehu's troops approaching, he called out, "I see some troops coming."

"Get a horseman," Joram ordered. "Send him to meet them and ask, 'Do you come in peace?'"

18 The horseman rode off to meet Jehu and said, "This is what the king says: 'Do you come in peace?'"

"What do you have to do with peace?" Jehu replied. "Fall in behind me."

The lookout reported, "The messenger has reached them, but he isn't coming back."

19 So the king sent out a second horseman. When he came to them he said, "This is what the king says: 'Do you come in peace?'"

Jehu replied, "What do you have to do with peace? Fall in behind me."

20 The lookout reported, "He has reached them, but he isn't coming back either. The driving is like that of Jehu son of Nimshi—he drives like a maniac."

21 "Hitch up my chariot," Joram ordered. And when it was hitched up, Joram king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah rode out, each in his own chariot, to meet Jehu. They met him at the plot of ground that had belonged to Naboth the Jezreelite.

22 When Joram saw Jehu he asked, "Have you come in peace, Jehu?"

"How can there be peace," Jehu replied, "as long as all the idolatry and witchcraft of your mother Jezebel abound?"

23 Joram turned about and fled, calling out to Ahaziah, "Treachery, Ahaziah!"

24 Then Jehu drew his bow and shot Joram between the shoulders. The arrow pierced his heart and he slumped down in his chariot.

This would explain the hasty mummification and burial of King Tut. For, as Salima Ikram opines, in the TV documentary,

The Race to Bury King Tut . . .

... the young king may have died in battle, away from the Valley of the Kings, in a place where there was no natron available for the full mummification process.

Thus it had to be an emergency operation, firstly, with the natron stuffed in to the mummy later, in Egypt.

The vivid biblical account of the death of Joram/Jehoram (of Israel) may go a long way towards explaining the peculiarities with the mummy and rushed burial of Tutankhamun, Jehoram of Israel's proposed alter ego [100]. - If we have indeed found the true biblical identification of the famous `boy king', Tutankhamun. in king Joram/Jehoram of Israel (who is given a bad press in the Bible, but less so than his brother, Ahaziah), then this must surely be an astounding discovery for Egyptology!!


Notes & References

[5] Compare Reign Length Data of the Alter-Egos between Egypt and the Bible.

Egyptology Reign Lengths

Akhnaton - - - - 17 years

Smenkhare - - - 02 years

Tutankhamun - - 09/10 years


Total ............... 28/29 years Bible Reign Length Data

Ahab - - - - - - - 21 years

Ahaziah - - - - - - 01 year

Joram - - - - - - - 11 years


Total ................ 33 years

The difference is not insurmountable, given that the Egyptian data are approximations.

Notice the striking closeness in the length of reign of Tutankhamun and Joram, and actually all of them are close dates. Considering the sequence of these dates between Egypt and Israel/Judah and how well they agree in their overall length from short to long reigns - in the same sequence; that detail ought to help us recognize that one cannot off hand ignore these data.

[7] According to Sir Alan Gardiner, Amenhotep III was the son of Menkheperure, that being the prenomen of Thutmoses IV. About Queen Tiy, he quotes from her marriage scarab were it says, "She is the wife of a victorious king whose southern boundary is to Karoy, and his northern to Naharin." [A. Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, p. 207.] - Naharin (Nahrima in the EA letters, Mercer) is the region of Mitanni. - Now, Thebes is some 740 km (ca. 460 miles, 400 nautical miles) in a straight line from Jerusalem. Probably a 400 hour trip one way by ship - how the progress on the Nile would be against the flow I don't know. Well, rulers probably could easily take a week, or a month off for such a trip. - But if he had a harem at Thebes, how about Jerusalem? That makes things quite uncertain, even if we assume his faithfulness was short lived. It says he did what was right in the eyes of the Lord. But since the Lord helped Asa against Zerah, because he answered his prayer, there is no way that the Lord would have helped King Asa on other terms than the kings before him, or If he was Amenhotep III, if he was wishy-washy and not faithful to God. - So, we refrain from following the idea that because of a sickness to the feet for Asa, A. III and Asa were the same person. Allen Gardiner says, "Amenhotep III was probably a sick old man." Such foot ailments are common in diabetics, and numerous other ailments, including plaque in arteries or parasitic infections. - The equating of Ahab with Akhnaton is less of a problem, since they were wicked kings, so too Thutmoses I and King David, who may have been used as a proxy power in Egypt because of his successes in warfare.

[50] The famous head of Queen Tiy was discovered by Sir Flinders Petrie at Serabit el-Khadim and can be seen in `Ancient Egypt,' July 2007, p. 35.

[56] This rule may also have been at least partially by proxy.(?)

[58] There is also another cartouche for Smenkhare, a little different.

[75] For images of the inside of the tomb of Tutankhamun and its plan see `Art and History of Egypt, p. 100-103.

[100] The Biblical account of Joram/Tutankhamun.

2.Kings starting in chapter 8:25: "In the twelfth year of Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel did Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah begin to reign.

8:26 Two and twenty years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign; and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Athaliah, the daughter of Omri king of Israel.

8:27 And he walked in the way of the house of Ahab, and did evil in the sight of the Lord, as did the house of Ahab: for he was the son in law of the house of Ahab.

8:28 And he went with Joram the son of Ahab to the war against Hazael king of Syria in Ramothgilead; and the Syrians wounded Joram.

8:29 And king Joram went back to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which the Syrians had given him at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael king of Syria. And Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Joram the son of Ahab in Jezreel, because he was sick.'

Continued in 2.Kings chapter 9:14: "So Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son of Nimshi conspired against Joram. (Now Joram had kept Ramothgilead, he and all Israel, because of Hazael king of Syria.

9:15 But king Joram was returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which the Syrians had given him, when he fought with Hazael king of Syria.) And Jehu said, If it be your minds, then let none go forth nor escape out of the city to go to tell it in Jezreel.

9:16 So Jehu rode in a chariot, and went to Jezreel; for Joram lay there. And Ahaziah king of Judah was come down to see Joram.

9:17 And there stood a watchman on the tower in Jezreel, and he spied the company of Jehu as he came, and said, I see a company. And Joram said, Take an horseman, and send to meet them, and let him say, Is it peace?

9:18 So there went one on horseback to meet him, and said, Thus saith the king, Is it peace? And Jehu said, What hast thou to do with peace? turn thee behind me. And the watchman told, saying, The messenger came to them, but he cometh not again.

9:19 Then he sent out a second on horseback, which came to them, and said, Thus saith the king, Is it peace? And Jehu answered, What hast thou to do with peace? turn thee behind me.

9:20 And the watchman told, saying, He came even unto them, and cometh not again: and the driving is like the driving of Jehu the son of Nimshi; for he driveth furiously."

9:21 And Joram said, Make ready. And his chariot was made ready. And Joram king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah went out, each in his chariot, and they went out against Jehu, and met him in the portion of Naboth the Jezreelite.

9:22 And it came to pass, when Joram saw Jehu, that he said, Is it peace, Jehu? And he answered, What peace, so long as the whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are so many?

9:23 And Joram turned his hands, and fled, and said to Ahaziah, There is treachery, O Ahaziah.

9:24 And Jehu drew a bow with his full strength, and smote Jehoram between his arms, and the arrow went out at his heart, and he sunk down in his chariot.

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